Although the holiday includes elements of joy and celebration, Rosh HaShanah is a deeply religious occasion. The customs and symbols of Rosh HaShanah reflect the holiday's dual emphasis on both happiness and humility. Customs observed on Rosh HaShanah include the sounding of the shofar and eating special foods including round challah, which symbolizes the circle of life, and sweet foods for a sweet New Year. It is also customary to extend wishes for a good year. In Hebrew, the simple form of the greeting is "L'shanah tovah!"
Preparation for the High Holidays begins a full month before Rosh HaShanah. The entire Hebrew month of Elul is dedicated to readying ourselves for Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur. Some congregations follow the custom of sounding the shofar at the end of each weekday morning service during Elul as a reminder of the approaching season.
Many Reform Jews celebrate one day of Rosh HaShanah, while others, together with Conservative and Orthodox Jews observe two days. Historically, North American Reform congregations have followed the calendar set forth in the Torah (Lev. 23:24; Num. 29:1), in which Rosh HaShanah is observed for one day, on the first day of the Hebrew month of Tishrei. However, this holiday differs from all other Jewish festivals because it is observed for two days even in the land of Israel, where all stores, schools and businesses are closed for the holiday. A growing number of Reform congregations have adopted the practice of observing a second day of Rosh HaShanah.
One very meaningful practice associated with Rosh HaShanah is tashlich, a ceremony in which Jews go to a body of water, such as a river, stream, or ocean, to cast away their sins by symbolically tossing bread into the water. This physical act inspires us to remember our actions, right our wrongs, and refocus ourselves for the New Year.
Selichot, a Hebrew word meaning "forgiveness," refers to the special penitential prayers recited by Jews throughout the High Holidays. Jews recite Selichot beginning late at night on the Saturday before Rosh HaShanah and again each morning on the days between the New Year and Yom Kippur. Reform congregations usually observe Selichot on the Saturday night just prior to Rosh HaShanah, a solemn and fitting preparation for 10 days of reflection and self-examination. Learn more about Selichot and preparing for the High Holidays.
The shofar, made from the horn of a ram, is sounded throughout the High Holiday period, beginning during the preparatory days of Elul. It also is sounded during the Rosh HaShana service and at the end of Yom Kippur. The shofar is always curved or bent, symbolizing our humility as we stand before God and confront our actions. The celebration that ultimately evolved into Rosh HaShanah was originally called Yom T’ruah (Day of Sounding the Shofar).
One of the world’s oldest wind instruments, the shofar played an important role in Jewish history long before it became associated with Rosh HaShanah. It is mentioned throughout the Bible as a central element in ritual observance. For example, the shofar was sounded at the new moon and at solemn feasts. The Book of Exodus (19:16; 20:15) describes how the shofar was blown at Mt. Sinai to prepare the people for the giving of the Torah. The Book of Joshua (6:1-20) details the blowing of the shofar as part of the conquest of Jericho.
There are four different shofar “calls,” each with a unique name, used during the High Holidays: t’kiah (one long blast), sh’varim (three short blasts), t’ruah (nine quick blasts) and t’kia g’dolah (one very long blast). Today, these sounds suggest different approaches to our annual cheshbon hanefesh (accounting of our activities of the past year), which we review during this season. The shofar blasts echo different rhythms and patterns in our daily lives. Various explanations surround the custom of blowing the shofar on Rosh HaShanah. The link with Yom T’ruah (Day of Sounding the Shofar) was an early one, but there are many others. The great Jewish philosopher Maimonides viewed the sounding of the shofar as a call to repentance.
The most common explanation for blowing the shofar during the Rosh HaShanah service, however, derives from the story of the Akeidah (the binding of Isaac) in Genesis 22, which we read on the same day. The sacrifice of Isaac was averted when Abraham substituted a ram for the boy. Although the key message focuses on Abraham’s faith and against human sacrifice, the story also became a basis for use of a ram’s horn on Rosh HaShanah.
Challah, which literally means “dough,” refers to the special twisted loaf of bread eaten by Jews on Shabbat and other special occasions. The challah used on Shabbat is oblong; the challah eaten on Rosh HaShanah is round in shape. This custom has several explanations. One is that the round shape reflects the ongoing cycle of years and seasons. The most common interpretation is that the challah resembles a crown, symbolizing the kingship of God, a common theme throughout the High Holidays. As our thoughts turn to repentance and resolutions of self-improvement, the round challah reminds Jews that God is central to our people and to our faith. Learn how to make a round challah.
Apples and Honey
Over the centuries, Jews have commonly eaten apples, as well as challah, grapes, and other fruits dipped in honey, symbolizing their hope for sweetness in the year ahead. Learn more about the history of this Ashkenic tradition.
In the Congregation
It is a mitzvah to observe Rosh HaShanah on the first of Tishrei. The day is known for the grand style of the prayers and rituals, including blowing the shofar, in the synagogue. The prayers follow the general structure of the special services that occur during the other Jewish festivals of Succot, Passover, and Shavuot. There are, however, a number of changes particular to Rosh HaShanah and the High Holidays. Special additions are made to prayers that emphasize themes of God’s sovereignty and judgment, along with our hope for God’s forgiveness. The penitential prayer Avinu Malkeinu is recited throughout the High Holidays.
Following an ancient practice of Babylonian Jews that is now observed throughout the world, the Five Books of Moses (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy) are divided into 54 sections called parashat hashevua (the weekly portion). A different section is read each Shabbat, with special sections designated for each Jewish holiday. Often, these sections are thematically related to the holiday.
The Torah reading for Rosh HaShanah is Genesis 22:1-19, the Akedah, or “binding of Isaac.” An alternate Torah reading, Genesis 1:1-2:3, which is the story of creation, is read in some Reform congregations that observe a second day of Rosh HaShanah on that day. The Haftarah, the selection from the prophetic books that accompanies Torah readings on Shabbat and holidaysis from I Samuel, is the story of Hannah. (Washofsky 118-119; see sources below)
Because Jewish holidays begin in the evening, it is customary to begin Rosh HaShanah with a family dinner and to attend services that night and again the following day. Rosh HaShanah includes many important moments and motifs - being awakened from our complacence with our own bad tendencies by the sound of the shofar and prayers reminding us that amidst all the things we cannot control, we can control our own conduct.
On erev Rosh HaShanah, we recite the festival candle blessing and Kiddush (blessing over wine). We also recite HaMotzi (blessing over bread) as usual, but the challah is round, not oblong. Finally, just before beginning the Rosh HaShanah meal, we customarily eat challah or apples dipped in honey. Some families also enjoy a pomegranate as a treat before the meal. According to legend, the number of seeds in the pomegranate reflects the number of good deeds you will do in the coming year.
During the Yamim Noraim (Days of Awe), usually on the first day of Rosh HaShanah, it is a tradition to go to a nearby body of water and symbolically cast away one's sins or wrongdoings from the past year in a ceremony called Tashlich. One usually tosses bread crumbs into the water. When done with members of a synagogue, this is usually done in the afternoon. The ritual is usually accompanied by the recitation of verses from Micah and Psalms. According to Micah 7:19, “God will take us back in love; God will cover up our iniquities, You will hurl all our sins into the depths of the sea.”
This year, take some bread crumbs to a nearby lake or stream to perform this ceremonial casting away. You may choose to name your mistakes aloud quietly or just think them to yourself. Conclude by reading a meaningful verse about forgiveness or singing a song. Share any leftover bread with the birds and fish When done with children, this is a wonderful teaching opportunity and a chance to enjoy some time outside together on this holy day.