Bringing New Meaning to the Status of a Menstruating Woman
Bringing New Meaning to the Status of a Menstruating Woman
Theologian Elizabeth Dodson Gray notes: "Women's bodies may be the hardest place for women to find sacredness" ( Sacred Dimensions of Women's Experience, 1988, p. 197). Our society sends negative messages to women from earliest childhood about the expected perfection of their physiques and the disappointments of any flaws in the female form. Parashat M'tzora, then, with its focus on menstrual impurity (15:19-24), seems to impart the same kind of unfavorable sense. Rejecting our own received biases and patriarchal assumptions about menstruation, however, can help us form a contemporary view of these so-called taboos.
What the Torah deems as tamei ("impure") or tahor ("pure") is not actually attached to cleanliness, even though these words are often translated as "unclean" and "clean." These Hebrew words are ritual terms, meant to designate those in a physical and spiritual state unable to enter the Mishkan (Tabernacle; and in later times, the Temple), or those able to do so. Those who are considered tamei are taboo (which is not what we think of as "bad"), meaning that they cannot enter the sacred space; and the thing that causes them to be ineligible to enter is also understood to be taboo.
Anthropologists note that taboos are the system by which a culture sets aside certain objects or persons as either sacred or accursed. Such objects or persons inspire both fear and respect. Penelope Washbourn writes: "Menstruation symbolizes the advent of a new power that is mana. . . 'sacred.' . . . A taboo expresses this feeling that something special, some holy power, is involved, and our response to it must be very careful" (in WomanSpirit Rising, 1989, p. 251). This mixed message of fear and power, contact and avoidance, actually dominates all the Torah's passages around blood.
Blood, which is to be avoided in the realm of eating and sex, is the same substance that atones for the community in the sacrificial system, and it binds the individual male child to the Israelite covenant through circumcision. Blood both sustains and endangers; it is the medium of plague or deliverance. Thus blood — like every potent symbol — has the double quality and the twin potential of birth and decay, purity and impurity.
Making Women's Bodies a Blessing
So too with menstrual blood. We who are often uninspired and unaffected by our bodies should reject the negative connotation of taboo — and explore, instead, the positive and sacred aspect. Surely a religion that has a blessing for an activity as mundane as going to the bathroom should have a blessing for the coming and going of menstruation. Since the male composers of the liturgy, living in a world where modesty was central and women's bodies were a mystery at best, were not able — or more likely, not willing — to imagine such a blessing, we must be the first generation to do so.
More than thirty years ago, I did just this: I wrote a blessing for menstruation and have been writing about it and teaching it ever since. When I crafted my b'rachah, I reappropriated the difficult and offensive morning blessing in the traditional prayer book, which reads: "Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Ruler of the Universe, who has not made me a woman." (Traditionally, women say instead, "who has made me according to Your will.") Each month, when I get my period, I say: "Baruch atah Adonai, eloheinu melech haolam, she'asani ishah: Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Ruler of the Universe, who has made me a woman." Saying the blessing becomes a revolutionary moment, for this slight change in wording — changing the negative "who has not made me a woman" into the positive "who has made me a woman" — affirms my holiness and sanctity within the context of menstruation, not despite it.
I believe it is possible to rescue the aspects of mystery inherent in menstruation. While we reject menstrual huts, a separation from the sancta, and antiquated notions of cleanliness, we can still emerge with a sense of the overwhelming mystery of life and death that is embodied in our corporeal female selves. While many women associate menstruation with physical pain and discomfort, the experience nonetheless involves a degree of power. We should reject the notion that menstruation makes a woman "unclean" and instead think of this time as a period of intense electrical charges — the charge of life and death — pulsing through our bodies. Blu Greenberg urges us to focus more on the positive, "to restore that element of holiness to our bodies, our selves" (On Women and Judaism, 1981, pp. 118-120).
Menstruation and Covenant
We can also consider a connection between menstruation and covenant. The prophet Zechariah speaks to "daughter Jerusalem" and "daughter Zion" about "your covenant of blood" as that which releases prisoners from the dry pit (9:9-11). It does not say "the covenant of blood," as most translations render it, but rather emphasizes that blood is the focus of the covenant. The address to the feminine persona suggests that all "daughters of Zion" have that covenant of blood. It is through menstruation — from puberty when we accept our responsibilities as Jews, through the elder years when bleeding stops and deep wisdom starts — that the entire world is saved from the dry pit of death, in which there is no water, no womb, no regeneration, no rebirth.
See menstrual blood, then, as women's covenantal blood — just as the blood of b'rit milah (ritual circumcision) is men's. The possibilities for rituals around this abound. For women too have a b'rit (covenant) inscribed in our flesh as an "everlasting covenant" (Genesis 17:19): not just once, at eight days old, but every single month. And M'tzora, in its ancient and perhaps awkward way, attempts to remind us.
Reprinted with the permission of CCAR Press from The Torah: A Women's Commentary, edited by Tamara Cohn Eskenazi and Andrea L. Weiss (New York: URJ Press and Women of Reform Judaism, 2008).
Rabbi Elyse Goldstein is the founding Rabbi of City Shul, downtown Toronto's new Reform congregation. Before that, for twenty years, she was the director of Kolel: The Adult Centre for Liberal Jewish Learning. She is the author/editor of four books on women and Judaism (published by Jewish Lights Publishing).
Rabbi Goldstein elegantly turns the traditional notion of nidah, menstruation, on its head: from a condition conveying impurity or even uncleanness, to one of sacredness and power. In a similar reconception, the author Judith S. Antonelli points out that since, "procreation, bodily secretions, and death all convey tumah . . . it is inaccurate to categorize tumah as 'death' and taharah [purity] as 'life,' for tumah itself comprises both life and death"1
Antonelli traces the negative connotations associated with menstruation to the rabbis of our tradition. The Babylonian Talmud, for example, states: "If a menstruating woman passes between two [men], if it is at the beginning of her period she will kill one of them, and if is at the end of her period she will cause strife between them" (P'sachim 111a, in Antonelli, p. 279). The medieval philosopher and physician, Nachmanides, believed that the child was formed from the woman's blood, but not out of her menstrual blood: "How could a fetus be formed out of that, since it is a deadly poison, causing the death of any creature that drinks it or eats it!" (ibid.)
Rather than seeing the taboo against menstruating women as originating in men's fear or revulsion, Antonelli asserts that it was women who devised it: "The idea that women instituted menstrual taboos to set limits with men enables us to understand more clearly why God would command such taboos at Sinai — they were intended to set limits to human sexuality and, hence to sanctify it" (ibid., p. 281).
Indeed, Antonelli believes that the menstrual hut, rather than isolating women, afforded them the opportunity for "women's autonomy and enabling them to enjoy a 'break from their normal labors and spend the time happily talking and weaving'" (ibid. p. 282, quoting Thomas Buckley and Alma Gottlieb's Blood Magic: The Anthropology of Menstruation, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988, p. 38).
Antonelli concludes by affirming that the traditional morning blessing for women, "Blessed are You, Sovereign of the Universe, for making me kirtzono [according to God's will]" is not about women's subordination to men, but about being part of the natural cycle of life (ibid., p. 287).
1. Judith S. Antonelli, In the Image of God: A Feminist Commentary on the Torah (Northvale, New Jersey/London: Jason Aronson Inc., 1995), p. 276
Rabbi Suzanne Singer has served as rabbi and educator at Temple Beth El in Riverside, CA since 2008.
M’tzora, Leviticus 14:1-15:33
The Torah: A Modern Commentary, pp. 839-854; Revised Edition, pp. 750-764
The Torah: A Women's Commentary, pp. 657-678
Haftarah, Malachi 3:4-24
The Torah: A Modern Commentary, pp. 994−996; Revised Edition, pp. 765−767